Africa is the second largest continent after Asia, having kaleidoscopic landscapes and diverse climate, civilizations, and wildlife. It has unimpeachable glory with the world’s largest desert Sahara, the longest river the Nile, as well as the highest sand dunes. The African jungles are brimming with awesome species like rhinos, lions, gorillas, and wildebeests. Being rich in diamonds, it has the top two diamond mine countries of the world, namely, Botswana and Congo.
Serengeti National Park
Serengeti, the most popular national park of Tanzania, is the longest and largest migration of animals, especially wildebeests, and so called the Great Migration. Its name is derived from the Maasai “siringet,” meaning “endless plains.” Bordered by Kenya to the north, it has a large strip of savannah, from hilly woodlands to grasslands, spanning 30,000 m2.
The Nile, which is 6650 km long, is the longest river in the world. It flows through eleven countries and finally ends up in the Mediterranean Sea. The three main tributaries of the river are the White Nile, the Atbara, and the Blue Nile. The White Nile has the headwaters, while the Blue Nile is the secondary stream covering two-thirds of the river. Since ancient times, it has been a rich land for agriculture. The river transports large stones, which are used to build temples and tombs. The majority of the Egyptian civilization flourished along its banks, thus forming a cradle of civilization.
The Great Sahara
The world’s hottest and largest desert, the Sahara Desert covers most of the continent. Temperatures here can soar up to 50 °C during the day, while drop to below freezing point during the night. The Sahara is home to the world’s largest sand dunes. The parched desert is not completely lifeless. Some species of fox, Saharan cheetah, sand vipers, and red necked ostrich are inhabitants. Similar to the Nile, it also covers eleven countries.
It is the highest peak of Africa and a stratovolcano, with three distinct cones such as Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira. Among the three, Kibo is dormant and can erupt anytime, while the other two are extinct. It is a trekkers’ paradise for both travelers and locals. Some wildlife species found here are African elephants, water buffalos, and bush bucks. As the mountain has masses of ice disappearing and shriveling, it has been illustrated in many scientific works.
It is the world’s largest dormant volcanic caldera, formed by an explosion of a crater 3 million years ago. It adjoins the Serengeti National park. Housing 25,000 African species, it is a favorite attraction for tourists.
It is the largest inland delta of the world crammed with wildlife. There are two enrapturing features of the delta. First, its water does not flow to the sea due to evaporation. Second, during the flood seasons between June and August, the delta water swells up to three times its original size. The animals from far off reach this delta during this season.
Red Sea Reef
It is a reserve for many dive spots and has an eye-catchy diverse reef system. It spreads across the coasts of Egypt, Sudan, and Eritrea and supposed to be 5000 to 7000 years old. It is home to about 1200 types of sea ecosystems, and 10 percent of them are only in this part of the world, thus making it a special ecological system